Toulmin’s Model of Argument Essay

Submitted By japslappa
Words: 420
Pages: 2

Toulmin’s Model of Argument
Key components:
DATA
Anything offered by the message source in support of the claim
CLAIM
Conclusion that the message source wants the audience to accept
WARRANT
Belief or value that explains the step from data to the claim
Often unstated
Message Sidedness
One-sided messages
Contain only supporting arguments
Two-sided messages (non-refutational)
Address supporting arguments while acknowledging (but not refuting) opposing arguments
Two-sided (refutational) messages
Not only recognizes opposing viewpoints, but also refute them
Prospect Theory and Message Framing
Also called “gain-loss” theory
Makes predictions about responses to risk
Central tenant:
Individuals are risk-seeking in the domain of losses, but risk-averse in the domain of gains
Prospect theory can be applied to message framing Message framing involves characterizing a risk in terms of gains or losses Gains include achieving a positive outcome or avoiding an undesirable outcome
Losses include incurring a negative outcome or not achieving a desirable outcome Messages can be framed positively in terms of gains or negatively in terms of losses
Two key prescriptions:
When behavioral choices involve risk or uncertainty, people will be more likely to take these risk when information is negatively framed
Framed in terms of losses or costs
When changes do not involve risk, messages should be positively framed
Framed in terms of gains
Negative Framing
Loss-framed message
Emphasize attaining an undesirable outcome or not attaining a desirable outcome—both costly
Positive Framing
Gain-framed message
Emphasize attaining a desirable outcome or avoiding an undesirable outcome—both beneficial
Language Vividness
What is vividness?
Vivid information is: emotionally interesting concrete and imagery-provoking proximate in a…