Nike vs. Adidas Essay

Submitted By jnguyener
Words: 729
Pages: 3

ghtenment -involved application of human reason to improve society -Scientific revolution= less trust in the church -supported marriages based on love (raised the status of women and family life) -began with philosophes -some Enlightenment thinkers followed Deism, and then left it to operate by natural law -Philosophers: John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith -Adam Smith set forth the principles of laissez-faire economies, capitalism(more supply and demand) -Rousseau wrote the social contract -John Locke: natural rights and popular sovereignty (influenced A LOT) -Voltaire: individual freedom -Influenced revolutions, organization of states and societies, Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (political) -nationalism -power of church went down, secularism went up -more equality among social classes

Reformations North- Protestant South-Catholic -centralized monarchies -religious wars -30 Years War -Geneva was a model protestant community and a missionary center (of Calvinists) -political power went up and the power of the church went down (Protestant) -decreased power of the church -increased political power -increased authority of the monarchs -improved status of women/wives because of love -increased European questioning of political authority -King Henry VIII of English received money from the Anglicans -did not use indulgences -included Calvinists, Lutherans, Martin Luther, John Calvin (Catholic) -Council of Trent(1545-1563) -from St. Thomas Aquinas -abuse of indulgences -moral priests, schools, and seminaries to educate priests -Society of Jesus -formed by St. Ignatius of Loyola -Jesuits, started 1540
Explorations
-increased European trade -formation of the Hanseatic League and Crusades encouraged search for new trading sea routes -Portugal started it because it was near the coast of Africa which had trade relations with Muslim nations and was led by a royal family that supported exploration (King John I, son was Prince Henry the Navigator) -Examples: -Vasco da Gama- rounded the Cape of Good Hope, explored the east African kingdoms, and then went all the way to India, where he est. trade relations -Christopher Columbus- convinced Spain monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand to finance a voyage to reach the east by going west. 1492, sailed to the American continents; found Cuba and the islands known as the West Indies -Ferdinand Magellan- 1519, sailed around the tip of South America to the Pacific Ocean for Portugal, made to the Philippines and died. His crew continued and became the first to circumnavigate the globe -Henry Hudson- 1609, sailed for the Dutch looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia -Hernan Cortes: Aztec and Incan Empire for Spain -New technologies: -Sternpost Rudder(invented in China during Han, made for better navigation and control of ships of increasing size, got to Europeans by trade) -Lateen sails -Astrolabe(from Hellenic world around 150 BC) -Magnetic compass (borrowed from Chinese to determine direction) -Three-Masted Caravels (for longer journeys) -African Slave Trade (Middle Passage) -Columbian Exchange: traded plants, animals, diseases, people, technology, and ideas among Europe, the Americas, and Africa -From Europe and Africa:…