Food: Iron and Non-heme Iron Absorption Essay

Submitted By hurleyd3
Words: 756
Pages: 4

Lecture Outline

Water:
• Need ___50x___ more water than protein
• Need 5,000x more water than Vitamin C
• Can survive years with some deficiences…can survive only a few __days__ without water
• __60__% of the body (80 lbs in 130 lb person)
• Major functions:
• Carries nutrients
• Cleanses ___tissue___ & _______blood___
• ____solvent_____
• Chemical reactions
• Lubricant & cushion
• Body _____temperature______
• Water balance regulated by:
• Senses (ie. dry mouth)
• ___hypothalamus___ (senses concentrated blood, low blood volume or low blood pressure):
• Sends thirst signal to the brain
• Signals _____pituitary ____ gland to release hormone to the kidneys to conserve water
• ____kidneys____ monitor sodium concentration
• Dehydration
• Mild (___loss of 5% body wt__)
• ____pale skin___
• Bluish lips and fingertips
• Confusion
• Rapid shallow breathing
• Weak rapid irregular pulse
• Shock
• ___seizures___
• Coma
• ___death___
• Recommendations:
DRIs provide 80% of total water
Fluids from drinking water and beverages
Men: 3 liters/day (13cups)
Women: 2.2 liters/day (9cups)

Other 20% comes from food

• Tap water vs. bottled water:

Minerals
• Major minerals:
• ___calcium ___
• Chloride
• Magnesium
• ___phosphorus___
• Potassium
• ___sodium___
• Sulfur
• Trace minerals:
• __iodine___
• __iron____
• Zinc
• Selenium
• __fluoride___
• Chromium
• ___copper____
• Manganese
• Molybdenum
• Define electrolytes:
Electrically charged particles that dissolve in water
Major sodium chloride magnesium

• Iodine
• Function: part of hormone ____thyroxine_____-- made by thyroid gland responsible for regulating _____BMR_____, temperature, reproduction, growth, heart functioning
• Sources:
• Iodized salt (processed food)
• Seafood and seaweed (iodine plentiful in the ocean)
• Foods grown in iodine-rich soil

• Deficiency syndrome: enlarges the thyroid gland: known as a goiter
• Iron
• Functions:
• Component in _____oxygen carrying___ cells:
• Hemoglobin – _____red blood cells____
• Myoglobin – ______muscle cells______
• Component of __enzymes involved in energy metabolism__
• Needed to make new cells, amino acids, hormones, and neurotransmitters

• Heme vs. non heme:
• Heme iron (bound to hemoglobin): meat fish and poultry
• Easily absorbed
Non-heme: meat fish poultry and plants

• Recommendations:
Men 19+: 8 mg/day
Women 19-50: 18 mg/day
Pregnant women: 27 mg/day

• Food sources:
Cereals, meat, fish poultry, plants (legumes)

• Non-heme iron absorption:
• Interferes with absorption:
• Phytates – fiber in whole grains & legumes
• Polyphenols – antioxidants in fruits & vegetables
• Tannins – compounds in tea & wine responsible for taste & color
• __calcium__
• Lead
• Enhances absorption:
• Vitamin __C__
• __MFP__ factor – component of animal protein that promotes absorption of non-heme iron
• Iron deficiency
• Develops in stages:
1. Low iron intake and/or iron losses, body increases absorption
2. Low iron intake and/or iron loss, body cannot compensate à BEGINS TO USE IRON STORES (stored in different tissues and in the blood)
3. Body depletes iron stores
4. Body is unable to make enough hemoglobin to fill RBC à__anemia___ (cant make hemoglobin and cant carry oxygen)
• Causes of iron deficiency:
• Poor iron __intake___
• Lack of food – __poverty__
• Poor food choices – __obesity__ & iron deficiency can occur together
• Blood loss
• Menstrual losses in females
• Ulcers & inflammation in the __Digestive tract__
• Iron toxicity
• UL: __45 mg/day___
• Increases __oxidative stress___, liver failure, bone damage, diabetes, heart failure
• Symptoms: __fatigue, depression, abdominal pain__
• Normally: the more iron stored in the body, the less absorbed from the digestive tract – protection…