Imperialism- policy of extending control over weaker nations.
In 1800s, Europeans divide up most of Africa, compete for China.
Desire for Military Strength
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete.
U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power.
Thirst for New Markets
U.S. needs raw materials, new markets for goods.
Foreign trade: solution to overproduction, unemployment, depression
Belief in Cultural Superiority
Argue U.S. has duty to Christianize, civilize “inferior peoples”
William Seward- Secretary of State under Lincoln, Johnson.
In 1867, arranges purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million.
Has trouble convincing House to fund purchase.
Alaska called “Seward’s Icebox,” “Seward’s Folly”
Alaska rich in timber, minerals, oil.
The United States Takes Hawaii
Mid- 1800s, American-owned sugar plantations 75% of islands’ wealth.
1887, U.S. pressures Hawaii to allow naval base at Pearl Harbor.
Becomes refueling station.
Planters call for U.S. to annex islands so will not have to pay duty.
The End of a Monarchy
With help of marines, business groups overthrow queen.
President Cleveland recognizes Republic of Hawaii.
Under President McKinley, Congress proclaims Hawaii U.S. territory.
The Spanish-American War
In 1898, the United States goes to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.
Cubans Rebel against Spain
American Interest in Cuba
U.S. long interested in Cuba: wants to buy Cuba from Spain.
1886 abolition of slavery leads to U.S. investment in sugar cane.
The Second War for Independence
Jose Marti- poet, journalist- launches second revolution in 1895.
U.S. public opinion split:
Business wants to support Spain.
Others favor Cuban cause
War Fever Escalates
Spain Takes Action
Puts about 300,000 Cubans in concentration camps.
Newspapers exploit Spain actions in circulation war.
Yellow journalism- sensational writing used to lure, enrage readers.
The de Lome Letter
Private letter by Spanish minister Enrique Dupuy de Lome published.
Called McKinley weak, swayed by public.
American public angry.
The U.S.S Maine Explodes
U.S.S. Maine sent to pick up U.S. citizens, protect U.S. property.
Ship blows up in Havana harbor; newspapers blame Spain.
War with Spain Erupts
The U.S. Declares War
U.S. declares was April 1898
The War in the Philippines
First battle with Spain occurs in Spanish colony of the Philippines.
Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, support Dewy
August 1898, Spanish troops in Manila surrender to U.S.
The War in the Caribbean
Unlike navy, U.S. army has small professional force, many volunteers.
Volunteers ill-prepared, ill-supplied.
Rough Riders- Theodore Roosevelt lead volunteers cavalry.
Roosevelt declared hero of attack on strategic San Juan Hill.
U.S. troops invade Puerto Rico soon after.
Treaty of Paris
Spain, U.S. sign armistice August 1898; meet in Paris to make treaty.
Spain frees Cuba; hands Guam, Puerto Rico to U.S.; sells Philippines.
Treaty of Paris touches off great debate over imperialism.
McKinley tries to justify annexation of Philippines on moral grounds.
Opponents give political, moral, economic arguments against.
Acquiring New Lands
In the early 1900s, the United States engages in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
Ruling Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico under military control
People split on independence, statehood, self-government under U.S
1900, Foraker Act sets up civil government
President appoints governor, upper house
1917, Puerto Ricans made U.S citizens; elect both houses
Cuba and the United States
U.S. recognizes Cuban independence from Spain.
Teller Amendment says U.S. has no intention of taking over Cuba.
After war U.S. occupies Cuba; has same officials in office as Spain.